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Unlocking the Potential: Building a Theory of ActivismUnlocking the Potential: Building a Theory of Activism

Developing Activism Theory

Activists often feel frustrated that their political participation is largely ignored. Even if the activists do not fit into academic frameworks, they still need to think about their own practices and strategic planning.

One approach to activism is called framing, which describes sets of ideas that influence people’s attitudes towards an issue. Another is resource mobilisation theory, which offers insights into how activists obtain resources to pursue their goals.

Theoretical issues

It is difficult for activists to develop theory that is relevant to their actions. While they may find some of it useful, it is more common for them to be focused on what they are doing and whether or not they will succeed. They also tend to want information that is immediately practical, such as how many people can be expected to attend a rally or vigil.

Activists often draw on the ideas of other activists, as well as those of academics and writers. This allows them to learn about tactics and strategies that may help them achieve their goals. They also draw on their own experience of activism to inform and guide their efforts.

Activists can be found all over the world, from a wide range of backgrounds and experiences. They work together to address problems that affect all of us, such as homelessness and climate change. Activists are also concerned with groups that have been oppressed in the past, such as women and ethnic minorities.

Definitions

The term “activism” is often used to refer to any kind of political participation, but in reality it has a specific meaning. It involves groups of people working together to achieve a common goal, such as changing a government policy or educating the public about a particular issue.

Activists can take action in different ways, including using educational workshops, social media campaigns and public protests. They can also try to influence decision makers by writing letters and speaking at public hearings. They can even use direct action to disrupt a business or other activity.

Another way activists can impact society is by encouraging individuals to be more responsible in their behavior. This can include advocating for equality and respect of minority groups or individuals with disabilities, such as women or the elderly.

In addition, activism can involve supporting or promoting a specific cause, such as a charity or environmental initiative. It can also be focused on personal issues, such as sexual harassment and domestic violence, or on societal problems, such as climate change or war.

Methods

Activists often use a variety of methods, from direct action to support work. Support work can include preparing for a protest, writing a grant, or planning events. Some activists focus on a particular issue, while others aim to change their society in general. Regardless of the issue, activism can be a difficult endeavor to carry out.

Despite the importance of activism in society, it has received little attention from scholars. Most studies of social movements focus on powerful people and official systems, such as governments, elections, and militaries. However, the majority of activism focuses on ordinary citizens and does not fit neatly into the political left or right categories.

In addition, many activists do not have much time to read academic journals. They find the dense, jargon-ridden language used in most academic papers to be offputting. Moreover, they feel that the main audience of these journals is other scholars, not activists. Nonetheless, they need to understand that there are ideas in academic writing that can be useful to them.

Applicability

A major reason for continuing activism is that new problems keep arising and old ones reappear. People also become more educated and less acquiescent to the status quo, making them more able to judge when systems are failing them. Activists also learn from one another, sharing ideas and inspirations. The movement also continues to branch out into new issues and tactics, such as ethical consumerism or boycotting companies that violate specific political, religious or environmental values.

Another problem is that activists have different definitions of what activism actually means. A person speaking for his allotted three minutes at a city council meeting would not normally be considered to be engaged in activism, but a group of young people disrupting the meeting and chanting about their political concerns might.

Many activists use manuals that provide advice on community organizing, analyzing power structures, group dynamics and decision making, fund raising and conflict resolution. This suggests that a theory of activism that is useful for activists may be possible.

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Race to Respond: Navigating Activism and its Impact on M&A and Governance.Race to Respond: Navigating Activism and its Impact on M&A and Governance.

M&A, Activism & Corporate Governance Quarterly Review

The M&A, Activism & Corporate Governance Quarterly Review keeps you up to date on shareholder activism trends and how they impact your business.

Hedge fund activists spend a lot of time researching their targets and develop specific proposals designed to unlock value—at least in the short term. Understanding what activist investors are looking for can help boards anticipate tactics and prepare accordingly.

Deal activism

The majority of activism campaigns are focused on corporate governance and management. Activists use a variety of tactics, including leveraging proxy advisory firm recommendations and communicating with and rallying institutional investors and sell-side research analysts to amplify their arguments, orchestrating “withhold the vote” campaigns and utilizing stock loans, options and derivatives to accumulate positions secretly, announce surprisingly large leveraged economic stakes and obtain voting power beyond their own.

Another common tactic is dealing with industry competitors through “deal activism.” In this form of activism, an activist may seek to disrupt a merger or acquisition that would harm its own market position by buying a strategic stake in the target company on the open market prior to the deal’s announcement and using the stake as leverage.

To fend off activism, boards must be prepared to respond quickly and effectively. This includes acknowledging and closing any significant weak spots in financial performance, ensuring the board is adding maximum value, knowing their shareholder base and carefully monitoring changes to the register, proactively communicating strategy to the market, engaging frequently and effectively with key shareholders, and preparing for any possible attack by having a clear logic for unlocking value.

Breakup activism

The activist strategy of buying a minority stake in a company and publicly or privately pressing for the business to be broken up is gaining popularity in Europe. The strategy aims to boost the value of the remaining shares by creating a pure-play business. This is a common tactic in the energy sector, with the likes of Germany’s RWE being targeted to spin off its coal operations and focus on renewables.

The activists’ approach is evolving too, with traditional activist funds and new ones focused on operational activism, in which they seek to improve a company’s financial performance. These campaigns tend to have a longer investment horizon.

A growing number of institutional investors are supporting these campaigns, as they see the potential for higher returns and less disruption. Moreover, the new universal proxy rules, which require all board nominees to appear on a company’s ballot, have increased the number of board seats won by activists.

Competitor activism

Activists’ tactics vary, and companies must have a game plan for dealing with shareholder activism. Some activists seek long-term value, while others are more short-sighted. Regardless of the activist’s agenda, they can have an impact on M&A activity. Activists can influence M&A activity in three ways.

M&A activities can be disrupted by competitor activism, which involves a company purchasing a stake in the target company on the open market. This type of activism may be a response to a planned acquisition by an industry rival, or it might be used to leverage a competing deal.

Another form of competitor activism is consumer activism. It seeks to change how products are produced in order to make them more ethical and environmentally friendly. This can have a direct impact on the bottom line, as consumers may switch to a more sustainable brand. This can also attract new customers who may have a stronger affinity for the product.

Other tactics

With the increasing prevalence of activism in M&A, it’s crucial for board and management teams to understand the tactics activists use. They may call for a change in the board (or a specific member), publicize a proxy fight, or even try to leverage their position by buying shares with the intent of negotiating improved terms in an existing deal, a practice called “bumpitrage.”

In addition, some activists criticize a company’s climate, employee/human capital, sustainability and diversity, equity and inclusion strategies. Effective companies manage these campaigns by negotiating with activists, keeping discussions private whenever possible and using fact-based analysis.

While it’s important for management teams to listen to activists and consider their proposals, they must also evaluate whether these changes actually create shareholder value. For example, activist insistence on cost moves that require significant time to bear fruit—such as outsourcing—may not make sense for a long-term strategy. Instead, executives should aim for a balanced portfolio with wins that deliver on a mix of time horizons.

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Seventh Day Adventist Church: Exploring New DirectionsSeventh Day Adventist Church: Exploring New Directions

Seventh Day Adventist Social Justice Activist

A number of ideas are gaining momentum within the Seventh day Adventist church that suggest new directions it can go to fulfill its theology and mission. Jack wants to talk about some of them.

Many of these beliefs have been shaped by Supreme Court cases such as Sherbert v. Verner, in which Adele Sherbert was denied unemployment benefits because she refused to work on her Sabbath, Saturdays.

Sabbath Keeping

There is a growing body of research that supports the positive effects of Sabbath keeping. It can strengthen family relationships and improve mental health. It can also increase focus and confidence. Studies show that it can reduce stress and feelings of burnout.

Taking a day to rest allows the brain and body to truly recharge. It also gives you a chance to be still and focus on God. In a world that is constantly on the go, it is important to take time to stop and breathe.

Sabbath keeping is an essential part of Seventh Day Adventist doctrine. It is important to resist pressures to relax Sabbath standards at hospitals or other institutions where the majority of employees are not Adventists. All non-Adventists should be made aware of the institution’s Sabbath keeping principles and policies before they begin working there. This should include the types of procedures and services that can be provided on the Sabbath.

Social Justice

Social justice is the idea that all people deserve equal access to rights, opportunities and resources. This includes access to shelter, food and clean water. It also includes equality in the workplace and the ability to participate in politics. It’s often tied to a belief that we can only truly live as human beings when all of these things are available.

There are many different interpretations of social justice, but the core principles remain the same. The first is equity, a principle of nondiscriminatory and impartial treatment. Another is inclusion, recognizing that the differences that make our world unique are what make it great. The third is access, a commitment to ensure that all people have the opportunity to reach their full potential in life.

In practice, this requires a commitment to equality and the grit to fight for it. It’s why movements like Black Lives Matter, Me Too and the LGBTQ+ rights movement are so successful. They have an unshakeable belief that every person is owed equal rights.

Environmental Concerns

The health and well being of the environment is one of the major concerns of environmentalists. It is an issue that has long been a priority for social reformers and forward-looking health professionals. The use of synthetic chemicals and the resulting pollution has resulted in cancers, respiratory problems and other illnesses that have a significant impact on human lives.

Water pollution is another major concern. When harmful substances contaminate lakes, rivers and other bodies of water, they threaten the ability to drink the water or to support natural life. This problem is caused by a variety of factors including non-sustainable farming practices, oil leakage and hazardous waste disposal.

Those who are concerned about the health of the environment should also pay attention to the impact of climate change and global warming. It is important that people take action to help preserve the planet and protect the lives of its inhabitants. Climate change is caused by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides that are released into the atmosphere.

Human Rights

The terrible atrocities of World War II galvanised global opinion and created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is now a universally accepted principle that all humans are entitled to certain basic standards of dignity, justice and equality.

It is also widely accepted that governments have a responsibility to respect, protect and promote these rights. Governments can be held to account if they fail to do so.

Some people believe that all human rights are innate and inalienable. This means that they cannot be taken away from a person, even temporarily, by a sovereign power. It is difficult to justify this view in practice, though, since it would make it impossible for people to lose their freedom of movement or their right to a fair trial by being convicted of a serious crime.

Those who hold this belief also need to explain how these innate and inalienable rights are translated into the specific and practical human rights that are now guaranteed by international treaties and laws. This has led to the emergence of views known as political conceptions, which attempt to explain human rights by describing their practical political roles.

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